The easiest way to obtain information about a record when all you have is the Salesforce record ID is through the Find/Report IDs module.
Find IDs allows for the comparison of data in a spreadsheet to records of any object in Salesforce.
The matching is defined by the user as well as which fields of information are returned if a match is found.
More information on Find/Report IDs can be found by clicking here.
TIP: when matching on Salesforce record IDs be sure to use the "Salesforce.com ID match" mapping type. Do not use the Exact mapping type as this will not properly match a 15 digit ID to its 18 digit counterpart.